Chemical Synthetic Strategy for Single-Layer Transition-Metal Chalcogenides
A solution-phase synthetic protocol to form two-dimensional (2D) single-layer transition-metal chalcogenides (TMCs) has long been sought; however, such efforts have been plagued with the spontaneous formation of multilayer sheets. In this study, we discovered a solution-phase synthetic protocol, called “diluted chalcogen continuous influx (DCCI)”, where controlling the chalcogen source influx (e.g., H2S) during its reaction with the transition-metal halide precursor is the critical parameter for the formation of single-layer sheets as examined for the cases of group IV TMCs. The continuous influx of dilute H2S throughout the entire growth period is necessary for large sheet formation through the exclusive a- and b-axial growth processes. By contrast, the burst influx of highly concentrated H2S in the early stages of the growth process forms multilayer TMC nanodiscs. Our DCCI protocol is a new synthetic concept for single-layer TMCs and, in principle, can be operative for wide range of TMC nanosheets.
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136 (42), pp 14670–14673